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Database Management Basics

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Database management is a method of coordinating the information that supports a company’s business operations. It involves storing and distributing data it to users and applications, editing it as needed, monitoring data changes, and making sure that data integrity is not compromised due to unexpected failure. It’s a component of a company’s informational infrastructure which aids in decision making, corporate growth and compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM among others came up with the first database systems. They developed into information management systems (IMS) that made it possible to store and retrieve large amounts information for a range of uses, from calculating inventory to supporting complicated financial accounting and human resources functions.

A database consists of tables that store data according to a certain arrangement, like one-to-many relationships. It makes use of primary keys to identify records and allows cross-references between tables. Each table is comprised of a variety of fields, called attributes, that provide information about the data entities. The most popular kind of database is a relational model developed by E. F. « Ted » Codd at IBM in the 1970s. The design is based on normalizing the data, making it simpler to use. It is also easier to update data since it doesn’t require the modification of various databases.

The majority of DBMSs support a variety of databases by offering different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level focuses on cost, scalability and other operational issues such as the layout of the physical storage. The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications. It could comprise a mix of different external views based on different data models. It can include virtual tables that are calculated using generic data to improve the performance.

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